Faith based organisation
Faith-based organizations are of three types: (1) congregations; (2) national networks, which include national denominations, their social service arms (for example, Catholic Charities, Lutheran Social Services), and networks of related organizations (such as YMCA and YWCA); and (3) freestanding religious organizations, which are incorporated separately from congregations and national networks.
In policy discussions such as this one, however, the term “faith-based” has at least two important advantages. First, it is inclusive. “Church-based” would leave out synagogues, mosques, meeting houses and other places of worship; “congregation-based” avoids this problem but still omits the many non-congregational organizations engaged in significant public- benefit activities (Dionne, 1999). Second, it helps ease concerns about the separation of church and state. As Safire (1999) explains: “American political tradition...shies away from religion in politics,” but not away from religious values in public life. By substituting faith (trust in the truths) for religion (the organized set of beliefs), the new compound adjective gets around the traditional objection. For both of these reasons, this report uses the term “faith-based” throughout.
Faith-based organizations are more numerous and diverse than is commonly recognized. Current public conversations about the possible role of faith-based organizations in community life often assume that these organizations are local worship communities, commonly called congregations.2 In fact, many other types of organizations are faith-based. One useful typology (Castelli and McCarthy, 1997) divides faith-based groups into three sets: (1) congregations; (2) national networks, which include national denominations, their social service arms (e.g., Catholic Charities, Lutheran Social Services), and networks of related organizations (such as YMCA and YWCA); and (3) freestanding religious organizations (which are incorporated separately from congregations and national networks but have a religious basis).
The term ‘faith-based organization’ is relatively recent and was specifically invented to denote organizations influenced by faith traditions but not to the extent of being religious organizations: i.e., a religious organization’s main purpose is religion and a faith-based organization has another main purpose but is strongly influenced by a religious tradition or by a religious organization. Thus a Church of England school is a faith-based organization, as its main purpose is education and it is significantly influenced by the Christian tradition.
Marketing (distribution) Channels
Most organisations do not distribute their product or service directly to the end user. In order to reach their target customers, they distribute via intermediaries. Such intermediaries are referred to as ‘marketing channels’. The choice of channel is important since it affects such variables as the pricing of the product and the level of service that the producer can offer. Furthermore, the choice of a channel can affect a firm’s long-term relations with other firms.
Marketing channels are sets of interdependent organisations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. Producers use other firms’ members of their marketing channel in order to reach the final consumer.
A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.
Rokeach, M. The nature of human values. (New York: The Free Press, 1973) [ISBN 0029267501].